The Czech Republic was formerly joined with Slovakia, but has been an independent state since 1993. It is a small landlocked country in the center of Europe and contains many historical and cultural sites that were brought to the country because of extensive traveling and conquering that has occured over the centuries. The language that is most widely known is Czech, but there is still a large minority of Slovic speaking people in the country too. Many people in the country often speak a second language, some English is most commonly known by the younger generations, but you should definitely learn some Czech words and phrases in order to get around the country with less difficulty.
If you are traveling to the Czech Republic, you should note that it is now a part of the Schengen agreement and that if you are a citizen of one of the EU nations, you will not need a Visa to get in and stay in the country. If you are from Austria, New Zealand, Canada, or the USA, you may stay up to 90 days without having to get a Visa. If you are not a part of either of these agreements you will need a traveling Visa to enter the country. When entering the country, you will most likely be entering via one of the several international airports. After you have arrived, your two main modes of transportation will probably be the bus, which has extensive networks but can be limiting based on hours of operation, and the train system, which also has extensive networks across the country but are rather old and can be limiting in that way. In order to pay for your travels within the Czech Republic, you will need to use the countries official currency, the koruna, marked as the Kc.